University students must produce several written pieces of work with scientific accuracy. Students will have examined scientific literature and the works of other authors before using these to produce their own work.
So, with this in mind, there is a danger that the student may not even be aware of: PLAGIARISM.
Plagiarism means reproducing someone else's work, partially or in full, such as a text, a diagram, a figure, an idea, etc. without mentioning the sources.
From a legal perspective...
For various reasons, but here are the main ones:
Obviously, students can (or must!) argue (support) their ideas by relying on other people's work, but WITHOUT plagiarising.
In other words, students must, firstly, cite their sources and, secondly, ensure that their overall work is still an original piece that conveys their own ideas.
This means that they are able to demonstrate scientific rigor and professionalism, both of which are required in higher education.
Students will only be rewarded for this.
This is what every student wonders when they produce a written piece of work. The following questions also often cross their minds:
How can I support and justify my ideas while respecting the authors?
How can I ensure the originality and authenticity of my own work?
What sources are you inspired by? If you find certain literature interesting, consider the following questions:
Who created/wrote/produced the work? Who are the authors?
If you choose to use other people's work in your own work, you must specify the source(s) and reference them correctly.
To do this, we generally follow the international standards of the APA (American Psychological Association) which are available in their entirety in the UMONS online courses.
To be sure not to plagiarise, let's be reminded of the advice of Michel Beaud (2006), cited by Bertrand (2010, p.145):
("Either you take entire sentences and quote them, or you point out that you are summarising an author's idea, or you use some ideas, some elements, some arguments and, again, you point this out")
You want to support your writing, argue your point with the ideas, text and figures of other authors.
For scientific accuracy, there are three possibilities:
Transcribe part of the text, word for word, put it in quotation marks and cite the source(s).
Summarise the main idea by changing the words, the structure, making the idea your own and original, mentioning the author in your text and citing the source(s).
Present tables, statistics, figures, graphs, etc. and cite the sources.
Some objective facts are known by the majority of the population. These facts are proven, they are not an interpretation, they cannot therefore be questioned. These facts can be easily verified in official texts. These facts are "common knowledge". In this case, it is not necessary to reference the source.
Example: The national motto of Belgium is "unity makes strength" and the national anthem is the Brabançonne (English: The Brabantian).
⇒ This proven fact is public knowledge. There is no need to cite any sources.
Counterexample: "L'unité belge, on le sait, se traduit par une devise nationale sereine et constative - "L'union fait la force" - mais dont l'apparente simplicité ne résiste pas à l'examen. Car pourquoi devoir rappeler ce qui semble un truisme ?" cité par Pickels, A., & Sojcher, J. (1998). Belgique, toujours grande et belle. Revue de l'Université de Bruxelles. Editions Complexe.
(English: "Belgian unity, as we know it, is translated into a serene and constative national motto - "unity is strength" - but its apparent simplicity does not withstand scrutiny. Why should we have to be reminded of what seems to be a truism?" Quoted by Pickels, A., & Sojcher, J. (1998). Belgium, toujours grande et belle. Revue de l'Université de Bruxelles. Editions Complexe.)
⇒ This counterexample is the author's interpretation. ⇒ The author's idea is not objective.⇒ The information is not "common knowledge", so the source(s) must be cited.
Uses for referencing vary according to domain. The rules given here generally apply.
If in your text you want to mention the writings of another author, you must:⇒ put quotation marks around the text if you quote it (exact transcription)⇒ mention in the text: the author(s) and date of publication⇒ reference the full source in the bibliography.
The bibliography must be presented in alphabetical order at the end of your work.
What must be included in the bibliography? All sources quoted or used in the document.
From a legal perspective...
Do you feel ready to write without plagiarising?
Using an extract of a book in your work
Bertrand Baschwitz, M. A. (2010). Comment me documenter ? Bruxelles : Edition De Boeck.
Université de Mons (2008). Bulletin des P2B. Numéro spécial : la bibliographie. Sur moodle.umons.ac.be (en ligne). Page consultée le 11/04/13. https://moodle.umons.ac.be/mod/resource/view.php?id=49
Université de Mons (2013). Plagiat. Sur umons.ac.be (en ligne). Page consultée le 11/04/13. https://sharepoint1.umons.ac.be/FR/universite/admin/aff_academiques/Pedagogie_Qualite/Plagiat/plagiat.html
Université d'Ottawa (2010). Attention au plagiat. C'est facile, c'est tentant,... mais ça peut couter cher. Sur uottawa.ca (en ligne). Page consultée le 01/03/2013. http://www.uottawa.ca/plagiat.pdf
Université libre de Bruxelles. Evitez le plagiat ! Sur ulb.ac.be (en ligne). Page consultée le 11/04/13. http://www.bib.ulb.ac.be/fr/aide/eviter-le-plagiat/
Handbook on PLAGIARISM for UMONS students (in French)