In certain cases it can prove interesting for two universities to organise joint supervision of one single thesis. The universities agree on the precise methods of this collaboration in the Joint doctoral degree agreement. The two universities do not have to be located in the same country.
The doctoral candidates carry out their activities under the responsibility and the control of thesis advisors from each of the two universities. The two advisors fully exert the function of academic mentor for the doctoral candidate. The joint doctoral degree allows a doctoral candidate to earn a degree, which, according to the two universities' rules, can either be a joint diploma, or two diplomas.
Methods, development and defense of the thesis are defined in the Joint doctoral degree convention.